Article   I   Open Access   I   Published: 4 June 2021

Study on acute toxicity and haematological alterations induced by the exposure of ibuprofen to common carp (Cyprinus carpio)


Kurhade Chandrakant Shankarrao1 and U.M Jayabhaye2


1Department of Zoology, Yashwant mahavidyalaya Nanded Dist. Nanded (MS) India

2Department of Zoology, Rajiv Gandhi Mahavidyalaya, Mudkhed, Dist. Nanded, India



Indiscriminate discharge of pharmaceutical waste into the aquatic ecosystem may pose major health challenges to aquatic biota. The effect of acute exposure to ibuprofen was studied utilizing changes in haematological parameters under static bio-assay method in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). For this investigation, the fishes are split into four separate groups. Based on the sub-lethal toxicity research, fishes exposed to 1/10th of LC50 value of ibuprofen. The 96-h LC50 of Ibuprofen was 12.75 mg/L. in C. carpio. Therefore, for this experiment, fish were subjected to 0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg/L doses of ibuprofen. At the end of each exposure session (7th day, 14th day and 21st day), fish specimens were anesthetised with tricaine methane sulfonate to permit the collection of blood samples. The RBC count in group IV fishes of ibuprofen treated fishes, at 21 day of exposure, was lowered and it is statistically significant (p<0.01) to control fishes. WBC counts in fishes that had 7 and 14 days exposure to ibuprofen were not statistically altered, compared to control rats. Ibuprofen treated fish did not elicit any significant alterations (p ˃ 0.05) with reference to monocytes, basophils and eosinophils. Based on the above results, it might be inferred that administration of ibuprofen, may elicit immunological perturbations, and their toxicity may rise depending on the dose.


Key words: Haemotology, C. carpio, Acute toxicity, WBC, RBC



  1. Burdan F, Szumilo J, Dudka J, Korobowicz A, Klepacz R. 2006. Congenital ventricular septal defects and prenatal exposure tocyclo-oxygenase inhibitors.Brazilian. Journal of Medical and Biological Research 39: 925–934.
  2. Choe KP, Havird J, Rose R, Hyndman K, Piermarini P, Evans DH. 2006. COX2 in a euryhaline teleost, Fundulus heteroclitus: Primary sequence, distribution, localisation and potential function in gills during salinity acclimation Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 1696–1708.
  3. Gravel A, Vijayan MM. 2007. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs disrupt the heat shock response in rainbow trout. Aquatic Toxicology 8: 197–206.
  4. Hibiya T. 1982. An atlas of fish histology: normal and pathological features. Tokyo: Kodansha
  5. Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ. 2008. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK. Water Research Journal 42: 3498–3518.
  6. Kavitha C, Malarvizhi A, Senthil Kumaran S, Ramesh M. 2010. Toxicological effects of arsenate exposure on hematological, biochemical and liver transaminases activity in an Indian major carp, Catla catla. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48: 2848–2854.
  7. Kreydiyyeh SI, Markossian S. 2006. Tumor necrosis factor alpha down-regulates the Na+-K+-ATPase and the Na+-K+2Clcotransporter in the kidney cortex and medulla. Cytokine 33:138–144.
  8. Lohner TW, Reash RJ, Willet VE, Rose LA. 2001. Assessment of tolerant sunfish populations (Lepomis sp.) inhabiting seleniumladen coal ash effluents. 1. Hematological and population level assessment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 50: 203–216.
  9. Modra H, Svobodova Z, Kolafova J. 1998. Comparison of differential leukocyte counts in fish of economic and indicator importance. Acta Veterinaria Brno 67: 215–226.
  10. Nwani CD, Mkpadobi BN, Onyishi G, Echi PC, Chukwuka CO, Olua SN, Ivoke N. 2014. Changes in behavior and hematological parameters of freshwater African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) following sublethal exposure to chloramphenicol. Drug and Chemical Toxicology 37: 107–130.
  11. Nwani, CD, Somdare PO, Ukonze JA, Ejere VC, Nwadinigwe AO, Nwani JC Odo GE, Ugbor ON. 2016. Subchronic exposure to fenthion induces hematological changes in liver tissue of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 28: 229–234.
  12. Ranzani-Paiva, M. J. T. 1995. Células do sangue periférico e contagem diferencial de leucócitos de tainha Mugil platanus, Gunther, 1880 (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae) da região estuarinalagunar de Cananéia SP (Lat. 25° 00’ S–Long. 47° 55’ W). Boletin Instituto de Pesca 22: 23–40.
  13. Reddy SJ, Reddy DC. 2013. Impact of cadmium toxicity on behavioural and haematological biomarkers of freshwater fish, Catla catla. International Journal of Bioassays 2: 1199–1204

Download Full Paper: PDF